The Biography of the Prophet Muhammad Salallaahu’alayhi waSalam by Abu Hakeem Bilaal Davis

Weekly lecture series at Masjid as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, Aston, Birmingham.

First lecture was on the 3rd of April 2015, we will update weekly insha Allaah.
































  1. Alhamdulillaah.These lectures are very beneficial.I have always been looking for authentic material on the Seerah of our Prophet and this has filled the gap.

  2. Jazakumullaahu khairan. Very beneficial, as the seerah is of great importance & not much is available out there by reliable people

  3. Al hamdu lillaah I have greatly benefited from Abu HAkeem’s lectures, this has helped increase me in good. Barakallaahu feekum

  4. Alhamdulillaah. Very beneficial lectures, I have learnt a lot in these 11 lessons so far and looking forward to more beneficial knowledge. barakallaahu feekum.

  5. This seerah lesson is refreshing and comforting to know that the teacher is striving hard to use authenticated narrations. If you’re new to these lessons then be prepared to be on the edge of your seat because you’ll never experience so many cliffhangers! By Allaah, you should see the brothers faces when Ustadh Abu Hakeem leaves you on the edge, you’d wish these lessons were daily because a week is too long to know what’s happening next! I ask Allaah to reward Abu Hakeem and the listeners, Aameen.

  6. L1:

    “The study of the seerah from a point of view of authenticity is a struggle. It is well known to the scholars of hadeeth and history that the principles of hadeeth that were employed by the scholars with regards to the sunnah were not utilized with the same level of stringency in the biographies of the prophet (peace be upon him). The books that deal with the history of the prophet peace be upon him and the wars and the seerah do not have the same level of stringency in terms of authenticity that the scholars had with regards to the sunnah. The narrations pertaining to the seerah were collected with chains of narrations. But the approach to these chains of narrations was not done with the same level of meticulous care the scholars gave to the hadeeth in the sunnah. However, in recent times there has been an attempt to purify the seerah from additions that are not authentic.

    So he is Muhammad ibn Abdillah bin Abdul Muttalib.
    The lineage of the prophet peace be upon him was arabi aseel. He was from the purest of the arabs. When we are speaking about arabs, we are speaking about those who dwell within the Arabian peninsula and they fulfill certain conditions.

    We must try envisioning the Arabia peninsula. Why?
    It is the subject of many of the aspects and issues related to the seerah. Also, it is related to the presence of some of the tribes and the movement of some of the people around the Arabian peninsula(shibh Jazeera). Shibh meaning pseudo or semi or not completely. The Arabian peninsula was not a complete island. That is why it is referred to as a shibh Jazeera.

    If we look at this peninsula and envision it as a rectangle that is on its side, the bottom and the 2 sides are surrounded by sea. In that sense, it is ALMOST an island. From the top, from both the ends, the peninsula is connected to the rest of asia. If we were to envision the peninsula as a rectangle standing on its side , we get the formation below starting from the top left hand corner of the rectangle and going all the way across to its opposite side.
    Iraq

    Sham(Syria, Israel, Jordan, jersualem Iran
    and other regions)

    Medina Bahrain
    Najd
    Mecca

    Najran Rub ‘al khali Gulf of oman
    (the empty quarter)

    Sanaa Hadramaut Oman
    YEMEN

    Rub’ al khali is desolate. Its pure desert and no one lives there.
    What are the seas that surround the Arabian peninsula?
    The red sea is on the left hand side. The Arabian sea is at the bottom(indian sea).
    Along the right hand side we have the omani gulf. It is referred to as a gulf become it is a lot slimmer than the other regions. The piece of land on the opposite side of the right hand side is Persia. The piece of land on the left hand side is Egypt. If we can picture this , it will help as we go through the seerah.

    The Arabian peninsula is called so because it has arabs!

    Ibn taymiyyah defines an arab. The term arab in its origin is a term that refers to a people who gather 3 characteristics :
    1) Their tongue is Arabic.
    2) They are from the offsprings of arabs. Their lineage consists of arabs.
    3) They dwell in the Arabian peninsula or their origins are in the Arabian peninsula.

    The arabs with the people of knowledge are of 3 types :

    1) Arab al baaidah(first of the arabs)

    It is a reference to the extinct arabs. These arabs once existed. The people of knowledge mention that from the first of the arabs were the tribes of ‘Ad and thamud and their brothers in the neighbouring tribes. From the neighbouring tribes we have the likes of tasm and jadees. They were tribes who were brothers. ‘Iram likewise, was a neighboring tribe. But there are those from the people of knowledge who say that ‘Iram and ‘Ad were the same people. ‘Ad preceded thamud. Our Lord destroyed all of them. It is a possibility that the Rub’ al khali is in the state it is because it is a region in which the people were destroyed by our Lord. As for as the dwelling places, what was popular concerning where they used to dwell is that they used to dwell in the regions of hijaz(medina, mecca, Jeddah, tabouk,etc.) along the peninsula upto sham. They were predominantly in that region. As for tasm and jadees were destroyed by themselves(internal fighting) as some mentioned. They killed and annihilated themselves. Hood was sent to ‘Ad. Saalih was sent to thamud. Our Lord destroyed those 2 nations(‘Ad and thamud). They are now extinct.

    2) Arab al aaribah(original arabs)

    They return in terms of their lineage back to ya’rib ibn qahtaan. This person was from the offsprings of Nooh. These arabs used to dwell predominantly in yemen. They dwelled in hijaz as well.

    3) Arab al musta’ribah(the arabs who originated and who’s lineage returns back to ismaeel)

    Ismaeel was not arab. His father ibraaheem was from Persia. Ismaeel’s mother was a Coptic from Egypt. Ismaeel in essence was of mixed race.

    Our Lord had commanded ibraaheem to bring his wife to the Arabian peninsula (to mecca). After our Lord blessed this woman with the zamzam well and they were able to dwell within the region, a tribe called jurhum from the qahtani tribes came by her dwelling area after the splitting of the dam in ma’rib in yemen which was a dam by way of which the irrigation in yemen occurred and the people of yemen benefitted. Many Yemeni tribes were displaced after the breakage of this dam and so they travelled looking for new places to reside. They would look for those regions that had birds because that would mean water is within those regions. So they came to the valley of mecca and they saw within it a woman(the mother of ismaeel). They sought permission(which indicates the nobility of the tribe) to dwell in proximity to her. So they established themselves within the valley of mecca. Ismaeel married to someone in the tribe of jurhum after growing up. After his marriage, the offsprings that came from the marriage were referred to as arab al musta’ribah. When we look at the arabs in terms of their blood lineage, then the original arabs are those that return to the qahtani tribes. As far as the lineage of the arab al musta’ribah,then their lineage returns to ismaeel. And their arabi in that a woman from the original arab tribes was married by ismaeel. Their origins and lineage returns back to prophethood(ismaeel). So the tribes which were present in the Jazeera(Arabian peninsula) were for the most part in mecca and medina and those regions. They return back to adnan and their lineage is from the offsprings of ismaeel. The difference between the Arab al aaribah and the Arab al musta’ribah is that the Arab al musta’ribah’s lineage goes back to the offsprings of ismaeel who married an originally arabi qahtani woman. The original arabi tribes(Arab al aaribah) go back to qahtan who was from the offspring’s of nooh. This is who is intended by the arab.

    The lineage of the prophet peace be upon him goes back to ismaeel. There is a biblical verse which says our Lord will send someone from among your brethren. If this verse is established, then no doubt the prophet peace be upon him was from the brethren of ishaaq and from the brethren of those who were offspring’s of ishaaq since ishaaq and ismaeel were brothers. So the lineage of the tribes of bani Israel and the lineage of the prophets and messengers(bulk of them) trace back to ishaaq(the brother of ismaeel).

    When the prophet peace be upon him was sent, the people of the book were acquainted with his appearance and they knew of his coming. When they expected him to be from the lineage of ishaaq and they realized he was from the lineage of ismaeel, the arabs, a people who they did not consider, they rejected him. Even though they saw upon him all the signs and they knew everything their books informed them about him down to his name(the praiseworthy one), his characteristics(his height), his companions and how they would be, they still disbelieved in him(peace be upon him).

    Our Lord says that when there came to them(the people of the book) one whom they knew, they disbelieved in him. Our Lord says that the people of the book knew the prophet peace be upon him just as they knew their own sons.

    The Arabian peninsula had within it much of the blind following and customs that were inherited from ismaeel and from the people of jurhum. But at the same time, a lot of customary practices were imported from other lands. So within the region, people practiced that which was established from the prophets and messengers and there were practices that were contrary to the way of prophets and messengers. So there were different religions. There were aspects of the religion of ismaeel and aspects of the religions imported into the peninsula. From those religions that were imported into the region was totemism. This religion was present in the far east and it was present among the tribes of the Americas and elsewhere. Totemism ultimately returns back to paganism. It is related to the belief in the connection between humans and animals and the belief in the connection between humans and aspects of nature(mountains, etc.). In its origin, it is idol worship with other elements that were incorporated into that idol worship. Many of the early arabs referred to their sons with names that found their origins in animals. Some names were used because of the fierceness and courageousness of those animals like asad(lion), uqaab(eagle), etc. Some of those names would return to other types of animals like banu kilaab or banu kalb. Or elements of creation were referred to like sakkhar(reference to large boulders) or fihr (large rock used to grind and beat elements or food stuffs to a pulp). So these arabs would utilize names from the creation particularly those names that they saw to be names that indicated strength and might.

    Similarly in the region was idol worship that was imported into the Jazeera by Amr ibn luhayb ibn aamir who was well known among the arabs. It was not originally present in the region until this man brought it into it. He was notable among them. He was a person of respect and honor. He was a well known tradesman. He would travel northward to sham for trade and he would visit Iraq. Iraq was a region that was dominated by the Persian religion and by the religions of idol worship. These were religions that had various idols. It appeared to him that when the people called upon these idols, they were granted what they asked for. So he thought he should get some of those idols to the Arabian peninsula. This man was from the first of those who brought the idols into the peninsula. The prophet (peace be upon him) said in an authentic hadeeth addressing one of his companions by the name aksam ibn joon al khuzaaee that he saw amr ibn luhayb dragging his intestines in the hellfire and he (prophet peace be upon him) had not seen anyone more resembling him than that companion whom he was talking to. The companion responded saying that maybe his resemblance to him(amr ibn luhayb) would harm him. The prophet (peace be upon him) responded saying that he(aksam) is a believer and that man(amr ibn luhayb) was a kaafir. So the resemblance was not going to affect that companion in other words. He (amr ibn luhayb) was the first one to change the religion of ismaeel. Arabs would mark the animals in a particular way for the purpose of dedicating them to the idols or being slaughtered for the idols. He was the first one that caused the arabs to worship the idols.

    The idols that were worshipped by the people of nooh were likewise worshipped by the people of the prophet peace be upon him by the tribe of quraysh. From those idols, there was the idol hubal, suwaa’, yaooq, yaghoot, nasar, laat, ’uzza, manaat and others. Certain tribes had these idols and they worshipped them. Some idols were dedicated to certain tribes and others were worshipped by the arabs in general. There is a hadeeth in saheeh bukhari which is the hadeeth of ibn ‘abbas wherein he said that the idols that were present at the time of nooh were transported to the arabs who would worship them afterwards. Our Lord says in the Qur’an ,

    71:23

    “”And they have said: ‘You shall not leave your gods(because of the da’wah of nooh), nor shall you leave Wadd, nor Suwa’, nor Yaghuth, nor Ya’uq, nor Nasr (names of the idols);”

    The people of nooh named the idols. These idols were also present at the time of the prophet peace be upon him. As for wadd, it was worshipped by bani kalb in dowmatul jandal which is between medina and sham.
    The idol suwa’ was worshipped by the tribe of hudayl.
    Yagooth was worshipped by the tribe of murad.
    Yagooth was move from the tribe of murad to the tribe of khateef.
    As for yaooq, it was for the tribe of hamadaan.
    As for nasr, it was for the tribe of humayr who worshipped it after it was imported to the peninsula.

    The arabs had those idols transported to them and they would worship those idols within the peninsula. Around the ka’bah were well known idols(laat, ‘uzza, manaat, etc.). Even though idol worship was there, there were people in the arabs who were known for tawheed and those who had remained upon the religion of ismaeel. Even though much of the rulings of that religion had disappeared, they remained upon tawheed. They disliked shirk.

    From them we have zayd ibn amr ibn nufayl. Zayd ibn amr ibn nufayl was a person the prophet (peace be upon him) himself was affected by. He was firm upon abandoning idol worship. He disliked worshipping anyone but our lord. He would look for the religion of ibraaheem and he would criticize the Arabs for what they worshipped. Zayd ibn amr ibn nufayl was an elderly man. He was seen resting his back against the ka’bah. He then addressed the Quraysh saying that none of them had remained upon the religion of ibraaheem other than him. He said that if he knew which way was more beloved to our Lord, he would worship Him by it. Then he would make sujood on his riding beast. He did not eat the food slaughtered upon the altars. He would not eat the food which did not have the name of our Lord mentioned over it. He would save the baby girls due to be slaughtered which was from the practice of the arabs at that time. The arabs at that time saw them(the baby girls) as a form of weakness for the tribe. They thought men gave the tribe strength. When they would speak boasting about their forefathers, they would speak of that which the forefathers would carry out from bravery and that which occurred among the tribes. They would also refer to the various wars and those things took place with men.

    Zayd ibn amr ibn nufayl heard of a man intending to kill his daughter. He then asked him not to kill her and give her to him instead. He said that he would look after her and rear her. He said that he would nurture her. He told him that when she comes of age, he (the original father) could either take her back or leave her with him. He would despise this practice of killing the baby girls. He was righteous and upright even though he did not have the religion in detail.

    There is a narration in saheeh bukhari wherein the messenger peace be upon him informed that zayd used to dispraise the quraysh for their slaughterings they would make for the idols. He would say to them that our Lord has created the sheep and He is the one who caused them to drink from the water that He sent down from the sky. And He caused the sheep to eat from the vegetation that He grew. So he questioned them(the quraysh) as to how can they slaughter animals for other than our Lord.

    There is another narration in saheeh bukhari wherein the prophet peace be upon him informed us of the fact that zayd went to sham to seek the correct religion. He came across a scholar from the jews. He asked them concerning their religion. He said to him(the scholar) and the people with him that he was seeking the correct religion and maybe he would follow their religion. So he asked them to inform him about it. The scholar told him that he could not accept their religion unless he(zayd) took a portion of the anger of our Lord. Zayd replied that he was actually fleeing from the anger of our Lord. He said that he will not have any part of our Lord’s anger. He said that he can’t withstand that. He asked the scholar to point him to other than his religion. So the scholar and the people replied to him to remain upon haneef(tawheed). They told him it was the deen of ibraaheem. They told him that ibraaheem was neither a jew nor a Christian. He did not worship anyone except our Lord. Zayd ibn amr ibn nufayl continued upon his journey and he came across a scholar from the Christians. He told him to inform him about his religion so that he might embrace it. The Christian replied that he(zayd) could not be upon their religion unless he took a portion of the curse of our Lord. The Christians have a concept that we are born upon sin that causes us to be despicable. The only way we can be resolved of that sin according to them is that we believe in the blood(crucifixion) of Jesus. Zayd replied that he was not fleeing except from the curse of our Lord and he would not be able to withstand that nor his anger. The Christian then replied that then he(zayd) should be upon haneef which is the religion of ibraaheem. Ibraaheem was neither a Christian nor a jew. He was upon tawheed. He worshipped none except our Lord. When zayd saw the affair of ibraaheem, he left them and he did not see except that they(the jews and the Christians) were united upon speaking about ibraaheem. And he said that he is upon the religion of ibraaheem henceforth. This man remained upon the deen of ibraaheem.

    Amr ibn abasaa assulami used to hold that the people were upon misguidance. He saw they were upon nothing while they worshipping the idols.

    Likewise, qus ibn saaida was from those who did not hold or see the worship of the idols. This man used to stand in the one of the popular markets and he would stand upon his red camel that he would ride saying that the people must listen to him and understand him. He said that whoever lives shall die and whoever dies will be forgotten. He said that which is coming would come. He would give the people admonition and reject their worship of the idols.

    Abu dharrr al ghifaari was not upon the religion of the idol worshippers. This man used to make salah before the coming of the prophet peace be upon him. He would face towards the qiblah and pray something similar to the isha we pray in the night. It was as if he was inspired with the deen of the prophet (peace be upon him). He used to curse and ridicule the idols. He would establish the deen that resembled the deen that the prophet (peace be upon him) was upon in the beginning of his da’wah.

    So from the arabs were those who were upon a religion that resembled the deen of our Lord. They did not have any rulings. But they attempted to remain upon tawheed. There were people among the arabs who had the ugliest of characteristics and they had the worst forms of religion. They also had despicable social practices.”

  7. L2 :

    “Because the Arabs had strayed away from the path of ibraaheem and the prophets and messengers from his offspring, they fell into various forms of misguidance. This is manifest for the one who studies the seerah of the prophet (peace be upon him). There were various forms of misguidance related to their ‘aqeedah, their social life, their political structure, etc. When the prophet (peace be upon him) was sent, the Arabs realized that what he had been sent with was indeed similar to the way of ibraaheem and the prophets and messengers from his offspring. The Arabs understood that the call of the prophet (peace be upon him) was the call of his forefathers who were rightly guided. The Arabs would establish hajj and they would carry out certain religious rites even though they were idol worshippers which proves that they had inherited these practices from the practices of ibraaheem. But they would perform the hajj in a misguided manner. They would perform the hajj naked! Either they would be completely naked or partially.

    Though the Arabs had various forms of evil, they did have praiseworthy characteristics. Evils like zina and riba were present. But there were some Arabs who did not partake in all this. There were people of shyness who guarded their modesty. There were people who were upon tawheed. There were various manifestations of shirk though! For instance, some of the Arabs would swear by their fathers. This was common among them. Or they would swear by our Lord and the womb. Some of the scholars of tafseer mention that this oath they would take is that which our Lord mentions in the Qur’an saying,

    4:1
    “..and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship).. “

    Why did our Lord mention the arham here? There are some scholars of tafseer who say that this is because we must be mindful of our Lord with our women folk (mothers, grandmothers, etc.). Others said that that the aayah is a reference to fearing our Lord, the One whom you demand your mutual rights from and the womb whom Arabs used to swear by. Some of the scholars of tafseer said that our Lord highlighted to them the fact (the arabs) that they would swear by the wombs and so they must fear our Lord with regards to their oaths and with regards to the wombs they would swear by. That (swearing by the wombs) was from the manifestations of shirk.

    Also, some Arabs would wear talismans that they believed would protect them. That is again from the manifestations of shirk they committed. They would perform ruqyah with snakes and scorpions. There were cases of people who would die because they were bitten by these snakes! So this was a manifestation of their ignorance. They would swear by the angels and they would claim that they were the daughters of our Lord. Our Lord rebuked them for this saying. He said that those Arabs would hate it if they bore daughters. Then where is the justice that those very same Arabs ascribed daughters to the One who created them! Some of them would consider jinn as partners with our Lord and they would seek refuge in them. Our Lord tells us that even the jinn knew that they would be gathered in front of our Lord. But yet, we human beings make likeness to our Lord from the creation. A group from amongst mankind sought refuge in a group from amongst the jinn and they (the jinn) only increased them in sin. Calling upon and using the jinn is not permissible.

    Some of the companions had relationships with the jinn in jaahiliyya. Abu barzataa al aslami was one such companion. This man was a soothsayer in the days of ignorance. He would communicate with the jinn. The Jews would call upon this person to deal with their disputes and they would use his ability to communicate with the jinn to ascertain what would happen in their battles and other things. But when the prophet (peace be upon him) came with the prophet hood, he embraced Islam.

    Also, there was sawaad ibn qaarib ad-dowsi who was Yemeni in origin. He was also well known for communicating with the jinn in jaahiliyya. ‘Umar saw him walking before him once. He (sawaad ibn qaarib ad-dowsi) was a beautiful man. ‘Umar had the ability to sense certain things looking at people. He felt that this man (sawaad ibn qaarib ad-dowsi) used to be a magician in the days of ignorance. This man told ‘umar that no one from the humans gave him da’wah to Islam. He said that rather his companion from the jinn gave him da’wah. When the prophet (peace be upon him) was sent as a messenger, something occurred in the world of the jinn. They would normally climb on top of another to steal some revelation that occurred in the heavens. But after the prophet (peace be upon him) was sent, whenever they tried penetrating the sky they were pelted. So one of the leaders of the jinn said that this is happening because of something that has happened on the earth. So the jinns searched all over the earth to see what was taking place. They found the prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions praying fajr. So the leaders of the jinn concluded that this is the reason they were being prevented to go up to the heavens. The jinn of this companion (sawaad ibn qaarib ad-dowsi) told him that a prophet (peace be upon him) had appeared in mecca and that it would benefit him (sawaad ibn qaarib ad-dowsi) if he followed him. The jinn told him that the Jews and Christians knew of his (Muhammad’s (peace be upon him)) coming.

    The people of the Arabian Peninsula in general were masters of Arabic poetry. They excelled in the most eloquent and beautiful speech that human beings could put together. This quality of theirs caused them to be affected by the Qur’an. There were 7 poets who were well known among the Arabs. Their poems were so eloquent that they were stuck on the walls of the ka’bah. Some of those poets were ‘ubayd al aslami, labeed and others. They would have their poems placed on the ka’bah. These poets themselves were affected by the Qur’an. When the prophet peace be upon him recited the Qur’an, these people could not explain the speech. The poetries of the arabs fell on certain syllable forms and structures. The Qur’an exceeded all forms of Arabic eloquence. It was extremely powerful. It was not poetry because it was not structured like a poem. Moreover, the Qur’an came from the prophet peace be upon him who was not known as a poet. He was known to be from the best of them in uprightness and trustworthiness. He never lied upon anyone. Why then would he lie upon our Lord?!

    When the Qur’an was heard, the Arabs would say that it was magic. The khutbatul haajah itself made someone accept Islam. One of the people who was well known for ruqyah before Islam heard the notables of quraysh saying the prophet peace be upon him is a madman and that he has a jinn with whom he was conspiring or seeking assistance of. They said that he was affected by magic. So this man decided to offer his skills to the prophet peace be upon him. He asked the prophet peace be upon him if he should cure him of this jinn that had possessed him that the people spoke about. Upon hearing this, the prophet peace be upon him recited the khutbatul haajah to him. Upon hearing this, the man said that he had heard the words of magicians, soothsayer and poets, but he had never heard the likes of what the prophet peace be upon him had said. He asked the prophet peace be upon him to repeat what he said and then after some repetitions (3), he gave the allegiance to the prophet peace be upon him.

    The Qur’an is the speech of our Lord. When the Arabs heard the Qur’an being recited, they could not refer to it as poetry because it was not structured like normal poems. They also knew it was not the word of soothsayers because the Qur’an called to our Lord and its message was strong. So the Arabs warned the people against the Qur’an instead.

    The society of the pre-Islamic Arab was filled with evil. The women were not a part in essence of the tribe that was constructed of the men. The woman was looked as a source of weakness for the tribe since the man participates in battles and the sons continue the lineage of the tribe. So the Arabs would bury the female daughters alive to remove themselves off the shame of having a child that would weaken their family and tribe. Our Lord dispraised this practice of theirs in numerous places in the Qur’an.

    Also, they believed that they would inherit the wives of their fathers! Our Lord prohibited this practice in the Qur’an if it did not involve their consent and agreement. If a man’s father passed away, he would inherit his house, his cattle, his land and his property and his wife. That of course was the wife other than the mother. The notables, the wealthy and the opulent ones from the Arabs would generally have more than one wife. The inheritance of the wives would manifest in a number of ways. Either they would marry them or they would marry their father’s wives to people who desired to marry them for a price and they would keep the mahr. So they would use the wives as objects to profiteer from particularly if the wives of their fathers were beautiful and sought after.
    Or they would prevent the wives of their fathers from marriage completely so that the wives would remain in the home until they died and then they could take their inheritance after their death. Our Lord established in the Qur’an to prohibit these practices. He legislated for the women inheritance. The inheritance of the male and female was not the same and this is because as the scholars mention that the males were the breadwinners. The women were not meant to be the breadwinners. The forms of marriage in pre-Islamic period were many.

    One form was that the woman would have a large number of people come together (10 or so men) and those men would have relations with that woman. After all of them had relations with her and she became pregnant, she would choose who would be the father of that child.

    Another form was that a man would approach another man and he would say to him to marry his wife and he would marry his. There would be a legitimate contract for this!

    Another form was that a man would approach another man and he would say to him that he would marry his daughter/sister to him on the condition that he would marry his daughter/sister to him. There would be no mahr.

    Another form was that the marriage would be for a set period for a dowry and upon the completion of this period, the marriage would end. It continued to be a practice in the beginning of Islam until the prophet (peace be upon him) prohibited this. This prohibition is until the Day of Judgment.

    Another form was that a man would marry the wife of his father after the father’s death in order to keep the dowry and wealth that was given to that woman.

    As far as the tribes were concerned, there were 3 levels within them.

    Firstly, there were those who were known as the freed men and they were offspring of the freed men. They were from the pure lineage of their tribes returning back to ismaaeel. They were always freed men.

    Secondly, there were the freed slaves. They were attributed to the tribes although they were originally slaves. They took the tribe name though they were not originals as far as blood is concerned. They were freed by the tribe and remained among the tribe. But they were not from the tribe itself in terms of the blood and lineage.

    Thirdly, there were the slaves who continued to be the slaves of those individuals who were gained through warfare, or they were purchased them, or they were made slaves because they were indebted to the tribe.

    One of the manifestations of evil amongst the Arabs was that riba was present. They would give a loan to a person. That person would be unable to repay the loan after the time expired. Then the one who gave the loan would extend the period for the one who took the loan on the condition he paid an extra amount.
    If this person was unable to pay back the loan at the end of this new time period, he would be granted an extension against on the condition he paid more interest. This continued until the one who took the loan became completely unable to pay back the loan he took because of the huge interest piled. So these people would make an offering to the one who gave the loan to take them as slaves instead of repaying the debt. Those who usually took loans were poverty stricken.

    There were also cases when people were indebted to other people and an agreement would be present between them that such and such person will take the debtor as a slave. So there were different manifestations of slavery in the pre-Islamic Arabian Peninsula.

    The affair of the people of jaahiliyya in terms of their ‘aqeedah was generally corrupt. They made shirk with our Lord. They worshipped idols, stars, etc. They swore by their fathers. They believed evil things about the angels. They sought refuge in the jinn and they worshipped them.

    Socially, there were numerous evils. Zina, riba, oppression, etc. were prevalent. The strong overpowered the weak. There were different manifestations of slavery. As far was leadership was concerned, they thought it was something praiseworthy. But they did not feel the need to be subjected to leadership. That was for the weak ones according to them. It was not for the notable ones. They were generally a violent kind of a people and they did not accept leadership. The marriage and inheritance laws were corrupt. The women were ill treated and oppressed. Our Lord gave the women rights that the people of jaahiliyya never gave. In fact, our Lord gave them rights that western women received very recently. The messenger was Muhammad ibn Abdillaah ibn Abdul Muttalib ibn Haashim ibn Abdul Manaaf (peace and blessings be upon him)”.

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